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DESIGN IN MOTION 



;12.50 



The Art and Technique of Animation 
by John Ha as and Roger Manvell 



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he techniques of the film- 
hose of the artist, the animated 
' art form which today includes 
nt kinds, from comedy and 
rama and films of fact, as well 
1 commercials. 
Dast ten years, more than 
itries have been developing 
dividual styles and subjects in 
The result is an astonishing 
lievement in both graphic art 
iking, all the more fascinating 
s new. In several countries, 
epresents the most advanced 
)hic design and use of color, 
ngefrom meticulous realism 
act, from diagrammatic designs 
science to the evolving colors 
onistic fantasy. In short, the 
inimation has developed into 
id design that bring free 
:o painting. 

s a very fully illustrated and 
account of contemporary 
ne of the most flourishing 
)dern art. The authors have 
ie work of studios all over the 
ow what this new art form is 
ling, in addition to the U..S.A. 
3ritain, Canada, France, Italy, 
, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the 
iermany, Spain, Hungary, 
an, Roumania, Holland and 



munication Books 

jse, Publishers 
Street, New York 22 







37417 NilesBlvd ^MM 510-494-1411 

Fremont, CA 94536 www.nilesfilmmuseum.org 



Scanned from the collections of 
Niles Essanay Silent Film Museum 



Coordinated by the 
Media History Digital Library 
www.mediahistoryproject.org 



Funded by a donation from 
Jeff Joseph 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Media History Digital Library 



http://archive.org/details/designinmotionOOhala 



DESIGN IN MOTION 




DESIGN IN MOTION 



VISUAL COMMUNICATION BOOKS 
Hastings House • Publishers 
New York 22 



John Halas 
Roger Manvel 




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Copyright c John Halas and Hennerton Productions Ltd. 1962 



All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in 
any form without the written permission of the publishers 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-11588 



Printed in Great Britain by William Clowes and Sons, Ltd. 



CONTENTS 





Introduction 


7 


1 


Pictures in Time 


9 


2 


Art and Movement 






A History 


25 


3 


Contemporary Styles 


43 


4 


The Workshop 


59 


5 


The International Panorama 


93 




Index of Names and Titles 


159 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



We would like to express our gratitude to all those artists from many parts of 
the world who have sent us the examples of their recent work which appear 
in this book and are acknowledged in their place. We thank specially the 
Council and Membership of ASIFA, the International Animated Film 
Association, for their collaboration. 



INTRODUCTION 



With the help of artists from many parts of the world, this hook illustrates 
how the two contemporary arts, graphic art and film art, have combined to 
produce something entirely new, new equally for painting, drawing and the 

film. This new art is called animation. 

Animation was popularised by the comic cartoons of such pioneers as Max 
Fleischer, Pat Sullivan and Walt Disney. It seemed for a while that the style 
of these early films was to be permanently tied to the crude but lively out- 
lines of the comic strip cartoons in the popular press, or the colourful natural- 
ism of children's book illustration. Other pioneers, however, among them 
Hector Hoppin, Anthony Gross, Hans Richter, Oscar Fischinger and Len Lye. 
began the movement to introduce more contemporary styles of graphic 
design into the animated film. It took many years for these more advanced 
and highly stylised forms of drawing and painting to become accepted in 
films that were intended for the general public. 

At the same time animation itself was beginning to be used for a wider 
range of subjects. The cartoon for cinema entertainment became a branch 
only of animation, which was gradually entering what was really the 
documentary field of film-making — the public relations, propaganda and 
instructional film. New uses led to new styles, and the situation today is 
that animation exists in most countries where films are produced on a 
major scale. 

The purpose of this book is to show the various forms of design which artists 
in animation are creating. These are designs specifically created for motion, 
reinforced by sound, and especially by music. 

In animation, the artist produces a moving composition within the dimen- 
sion of his screen; the inner relationship between forms, areas of tone and 
colours which is characteristic of static art is superseded. A new kind of 
relationship takes its place. Many works which were composed for a timeless 
immobility contain the seeds of disturbance, the suggestion of a certain 
fluidity from which animation itself springs. A single line may appear to swing 
like a pendulum. Curved lines have their own intrinsic sense of movement. 
Most brush-strokes have a predetermined flow arising out of the directional 
movement of the brush. As a result, painting suggests a tempo, like music or 
dancing. 

When a painting becomes involved in presenting a story or dramatic situa- 
tion, the dynamic qualities of the action often supplant those which are 
purely visual and contained within the composition. The imagination of any- 
one looking at the picture is stirred by its subject more than by the intrinsic 
qualities of its form. The painting presenting a story can be extended into a 
series, such as the medieval studies of the Stations of the Cross or the Dance 
of Death. In the same way. stories are told in a sequence of sketches in 



modern strip cartoons, isolating selected moments that in real life would 
be a continuous chain of activity. 

We live physically in a world of four dimensions, three of which can be 
measured with an inch tape and the fourth with a watch. Time is a condition 
of our being, moving from conception to dissolution. The painter who wants 
to extend his art in time as well as space is following a natural instinct. 
Cinematography adds the dimension of time to the two dimensions of extent 
in space to which painting reduces, simplifies and orders the physical world. 
The artist using the motion picture catches time at its point of impact with 
the other dimensions, when time takes the form of action and movement. 

Painters have learned over the centuries how to suggest movement in 
static art. The main difference between static drawing and drawing in motion 
is the element of time. In this sense, animated drawing shares certain 
qualities with music, poetry and the dance. It is conceived not only in terms 
of proportion, as in painting, but also in successive tempos that have a 
beginning and an end. In painting we get a sense of proportion when one 
volume is compared with others ; this is also true of animation, but here a 
volume is compared with its changing self in time. The sculptor and the painter 
deal in constant shapes, but the animator creates or discards the series of 
shapes through which a body in movement passes. This evolution of shape is 
as expressive in itself as the balance of line and colour in a static composition. 

If the painter composes with physical volumes, the animator composes 
mainly with diagrams based on motion. The continuity of movement as it is 
stored by the retina of the eye relates to the source of movement as slightly 
as, for example, figures cut on ice relate to the skater. Composition by move- 
ment, since it is in three dimensions, may be compared with the luminous 
trail left by a swiftly moving cigarette tip seen in the dark. 

The cartoon character lives within a subjective, private space of his own. 
Special laws govern the landscape in which animation takes place. In real 
life, topography governs all our movements ; in the animated world, it is our 
movements that govern our surroundings. There may be a forest in the land- 
scape, but it melts in the path of a running creature. Objects have neither 
weight nor texture except what is needed to express their movements. The 
laws of gravity exist only to be denied. Height, width and depth lose their 
actuality through the demands of movement. 

Animation is a new art the discovery of which depends on the artist who 
is prepared to learn the craft and technique of film-making and apply them 
to his art. There is no end to the invention that may follow, as these pages 
begin to show. 



1 PICTURES IN TIME 



<& A 




The successive phases of animation for one half second's action by a principal 
character in THE INSOLENT MATADOR (Halas and Batchelor) 



Graphic animation is drawing that expands and 
develops in time. 

The dimension of time is just as much a part of 
its composition as the timeless, two-dimensional 
form contained within its frame. 




LA MERLE ■ Norman McLaren 
(National Film Board of Canada) 



10 




Since in graphic animation the picture moves, 
movement affects its nature. A picture thai 
remains still invites contemplation; however 
dynamic in subject and composition, it exists in its 
own right outside time. The artist conceived it as 



changeless. It is severed from movement as if ;i 
sharp knife had been drawn through the flux of 
life. Graphic animation is mobile not only in its 
line but also in its texture. 



BEGONE DULL CARE • Norman McLaren (National Film Board ot Canada) 

This abstract film was animated in colour, hand-drawn with brush, sponge, pen and ink, and knite by Norman McLaren and 

Evelyn Lambert. The film presents visually a musical score by Oscar Peterson of Montreal 







■,*> .-., 



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-* Credits for ANATOMY OF A MURDER (Columbia). Saul 
Bass and Associates (USA) 

The credits for this film grew out of the symbol designed for 
use in the general advertising and promotion of the film, a 
segmented figure. Working closely within the framework of 
Duke Ellington's jazz score, the staccato and fragmented 
character of the title was developed. The various pieces of 
the figure assembled together, then the elements— arms, 
legs, head, body and hands— were moved separately to 
synchronise with the appearance of the various credits. 
Finally, a pair of hands appear with quick, successive jumps 
forward, obliterating and blackening the screen. At this 
point the first scene of the film fades in 





The simplest form of animation is a succession of 
static images that relate to each other in design 
and take up their positions on the screen in a 
sequence the significance of which is determined by 
some other factor — for example, the animated 
credit-titles of a film, or certain kinds of cinema or 
television commercial. 







Credits for THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN ARM (Otto 
Preminger-United Artists, US A). Saul Bass and Associates 
The title opens on a black screen with four white bars 
appearing in succession from the top of the screen, after 
which a group of credits appears. All but one bar disappear, 
and this forms the beginning of a new bar configuration 
which in turn cues the appearance of another group of 
credits. This pattern is duplicated throughout the title, 
until one of the bars animates into the Arm, the trademark 
for the film, to end the title with the producer-director credit. 
The intention was to create a spare, gaunt, driving intensity 
into the title that would reflect the subject of drug addiction 
and combine with Elmer Bernstein's jazz score ► 





13 



True animation begins when a figure is given a 
fluid movement of its own. This fluid movement 
comes from merging together a long chain of 
successive still poses. In the live-action film, the 
movie camera running at normal speed records the 
continuous movement of a subject in the form of a 
' break-down ' representing twenty-four phases for 
each second of motion. These projected in rapid 
continuity on the screen merge together through 
the optical phenomenon called persistence of 
vision to give the illusion of a single moving 



picture — a picture that exists in time. 

The graphic animator has to reconstruct this 
process artificially. He has to invent the phases of 
movement for his drawn figures and their moving 
backgrounds. The art of animation is to create 
lively, significant movement. The technique of 
animation is to phase this movement correctly so 
that the hundreds or thousands of individual 
drawings merge together to create this movement 
on the screen. 



THE INSOLENT MATADOR • Halas and Batchelor-A BC Television (Great Britain) 






14 



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PEACOCK • Tennessee Ernie Ford Show. Playhouse Pictures (USA) 



Detail can only be absorbed it' the picture i^ 
relatively still. Movement and timing, therefore, 
affect the style of I he drawing, texture and colour- 
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PEACOCK • Tennessee Ernie Ford Show. Playhouse Pictures (USA) 



16 




Drawings must have both style and design. The 
moving figures in animation combine with their 
backgrounds in a desio-n which depends as much 
on the nature and rhythm of their movements as 
it does on the style of the drawing itself. 



THE COLOMBO PLAN ■ Halas and Batchelor for Central Office of Information (Great Britain) 




17 



DOWN A LONG WAY ■ Halas and Batche- 
lor for British Petroleum Co Ltd (Great 
Britain) 



Almost all animation involves some degree of 
simplification or stylisation in the outlines of its 
figures, and in their texture and colouring where 
these are also involved. But style in graphic 
animation can differ almost as widely as style in 
drawing and painting. 



18 




Graphic animation mighl be called the creative 
treatment of movement through drawing. The 
action is broken down into its successive phases in 
time and then reassembled in forms which can 
become highly artificial compared with corre- 
sponding actions or movements in real life. They 
may become now strange, now comic, exaggerated 
or wholly fantastic. Generally speaking, the 
quicker the movement, the simpler the design 
must be, if the eye is to absorb its qualities and 
significance. 



PICCOLO • Dusan Vukotic (Zagreb Film, Yugoslavia) 








PICCOLO • Dusan Vukotic (Zagreb Film, Yugoslavia) 



The animator, therefore, is an artist who creates 
the movement that can only be implied in the 
more dynamic forms of still drawing and painting. 

He gives this great new quality of movement to 
his art. He pays for this by sacrificing certain 
complexities of detail and richnesses of texture 
normal in still drawing and painting. Style and 
design in graphic animation must conform to the 
needs of movement. The sheer labour of creating 
thousands of closely interlinked pictures to go 
before the camera also leads to certain simplifica- 
tions of style. 

Another gain is the direct association of his 
drawings with sound that is. with music, sound 
effects and speech. The very exact timing possible 
in animation allows for the closest inter-relation 
between sound and picture that exists in film- 
making. The counterpoint of sound and image 
emphasises the rhythms of the movement and 
adds an aural stylisation to the visual stylisation 
of the picture. 









BLINKITY BLANK • 
Norman McLaren 
(National Film Board of 
Canada). Two exam- 
ples of a frame cluster, 
designed to build up 
an overall visual im- 
pression. The way in 
which the texture of 
the image changes 
from frame to frame 
(each frame is one 
twenty-fourth part of a 
second) gives a very 
lively and vivid quality 
to this image — an ani- 
mated textural effect 
only possible by cine- 
matic means 





-'*<■ *.' 



Animators have tended in recent years to make a 
virtue out of simplification and stylisation. They 
have reduced their figures to a few suggestive, 
mobile lines, and given them appropriately 
artificial forms of movement. The result has been 
the introduction of much new and highly imagina- 





•* f SUM ' 





VtAbp KMir/. If to 




THE GREAT JEWEL ROBBERY • Vlado Kristl (Zagreb Film, Yugoslavia) 



■/-. 



tive work in animation coming from studios in 
many different parts of the world. 

A generation of artists is developing now which 
is bringing a new sense of design to the rapidly 
expanding medium of graphic animation. 



AN OSCAR FOR SIGNOR ROSSI B. Bozzetto (Italy) 









A SHORT HISTORY • Gyula Macskassy (Hungary) 



TENDER GAME John Hubley (U SA) 








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ETUDE DE LA CINETIQUE . Berthon Muntschler (France) 



2 ART AND MOVEMENT 

A HISTORY 




The successive phases of animation needed for a half-second of action (Halas and Batchelor) 



25 




A Boar. One of the cave paintings in Altamira 



26 



ANIMATION IN ART 

Art began by trying to be like what it represented, 
and succeeded remarkably well in circumstances 
that no modern artist could tolerate. 

Already, so many thousands of years ago, 
representation was taking various forms which 
tried to isolate the characteristics of the subject. 
An animal runs and jumps; therefore the drawing 
began to concentrate on suggesting the action 
rather than representing details of the animal's 
appearance. 



The artist was discovering the need to suggesl 
action by non-representational moans. 

At the same time, the artist began to be attracted 
by shapes for their own sake, and elements of 
formalism began to appear. 

Primitive art was no doubt lirst attracted to 
formalism through lack of graphic experience or 
facilities. But formalism came to stay because of 
its ability to isolate and emphasise whatever most 
appealed to the artist in the shape, colouring or 
activity of the subjects he painted, quite apart 
from any ritualistic or magical purpose the 
pictures might also serve. 



A Bushman rock painting. A form of art that has developed during several centuries 





u. 




The principal periods of art in the past have been 
divided by some critics into those that favour 
formalism and those that prefer representational- 
ism, those that make the living pattern in the 
subject their prime consideration and those that 
prefer to derive their art from the artist's response 
to the living character or pervasive atmosphere of 
the subject. The pendulum swings either slowly or 
sharply from one extreme to the other, the masters 
of each phase developing their own techniques and 
traditions. 

Generally, the masters of formalism are less 
concerned with the suggestion of activity or move- 
ment than the masters of representation, because 
their attitude to what must be derived from the 
subject differs. Formalism is essentially static in 
its lines, contours and surfaces. 

But in both traditions of art. stillness may be- 
come the principal impression of the work. This 
stillness is not only physical but spiritual, the 
outcome of contemplation. In this case the artist 
seizes the moment of truth in the subject as he 
perceives it. and 'freezes' it through the physical 
attributes of paint, wood or stone. Such art. 
though physically inactive, invites contemplation 
and affects us with its suggestion of human values ; 
one looks inwards, wholly unaware of time and 
relatively unaware of space. 



28 



Four Sons of Horus. An 
Egyptian glazed composition 
of the XXIst Dynasty, about 
1000 BC (British Museum) 



Other forms of representational art are active, 
dynamic, suggesting both a 'before' and an 'after' 
stage of movement. The image or statue isolates 
the principal, revealing moment of activity. On 
the other hand, dynamic art suggests movement 
in both time and space. 



School of Leonardo da Vinci. Design for the Battle of the Anghiari (Uffizi) 




Story-telling through art has not been confined to 
the single picture — though many narrative pic- 
tures aim to suggest a dramatic situation in a 
single master-stroke of selection. 

But the continuity of pictures or the frieze 
which carries the eye along through various 
'stations' in the story has its own tradition in 
narrative art. For example, the figures in action 
on a Greek vase sometimes develop into a series 
of different studies of the same action. 



The Death of Hector. Attic red-figured krater (British Museum) 





A political cartoon by Goya representing a 
diagnosis of the Spanish government 



THE CARTOON 

Comic drawings or paintings arc normally active. 
They invite comparisons, associations, the re- 
sponse of laughter. By the nature of their own 
activity they make the viewer active. They 
satirise bodily characteristics, poses, movements. 



An American political cartoon of 
1779 caricaturing the overthrow of 
British colonial rule in America 




31 




Animal caricature in the Punch Almanach for 1898 (by courtesy of the proprietors of PUNCH) 

Though satire can be a characteristic of fine art, it 
has also been throughout history associated with 
popular art. often with political or social comment. 




32 



Metamorphosis of the human face. A nineteenth-century caricature of Louis Philippe of France by Philpon 



The word cartoon, although originally used in the 
different sense of a full-size design on paper for 
some future work, later came to refer to a par- 
ticular branch of popular, satiric art. 

From caricature and cartoon developed the 



comic-strip out of which the lirst film cartoons 

were horn. The succession of still pictures taking a 
story or an action through its various key stages 
became the film which turned the drawings into 
moving actors performing in space and time. 



An early American comic strip featuring Popeye (by courtesy of Kings Feature, USA) 




33 






DRAME CHEZ LES FANTOCHES • Emile Cohl (France) 




In bringing' movement to the photographic image, 
the film also brought the possibility of movement 
to drawings. Because of the immense labour 
involved in producing the great quantities of 
drawings needed, the early cartoon films used the 
very simplest graphic style, involving bare figure 
outlines and stark backgrounds without any 
suggestion of tonal qualities. 

This style was determined by the need to 
produce drawings that could be rapidly re- 
produced in their thousands. 



34 




FELIX THE CAT ■ Pat Sullivan (America) 




ANIMAL FARM • Halas and Batchelor for Louis de Rochemont (Great Britain) 



CARTOONS AND ANIMALS 

It was, of course, no innovation in popular art for 
Pat Sullivan. Max Fleischer and Walt Disney to 
create animals as the heroes and heroines of their 
films. From the earliest times men have turned 
animals into gods and gods into animals ; they have 
masked themselves in animal masks and disguised 
themselves in animal skins. In the fables of the 
Bestiaries they have given the animals satiric 
human characteristics. Children's tales and adult 
fables have had highly developed animal char- 
acters from J'lsop to La Fontaine and George 
Orwell. 

With the invention of the cinematographic 
moving picture came the additional possibility of 



giving drawings movement through film. The King 
tradition of animal art from Lascaux to Landseer 
in which the need to represent the gracious move- 
ments or the savage gestures, the violent emotions 
or the sentiment of animals in the semi-realistic 
poses of still pictures could now be extended 
through films to dramatic action itself. The 
traditional animals of nineteenth-century art. the 
wolves with slavering jaws, the wide-eyed, rearing 
horses, the dying lions, the trustful, innocent 
puppies and kittens, might now be transferred to 
the screen. And so could the clever, humanised 
animals of the comic and satiric cartoons or the 

book illustrations of the Bestiaries and fables. 
Renard the Fox had found a stage; he could 
become an actor in man's image. 



35 



- 4/ t> 





BUGS BUNNY 
(© Copyright 1958 Warner Brothers Pictures, USA) 



36 



As the cartoon films learned their first elementary 
technical disciplines during the period 1915-28 
(the maturer years of the silent film), the first 
animal favourites began to emerge — Krazy Kat. 
Felix the Cat. and eventually Mickey Mouse, 
Donald Duck, Pluto and Bugs Bunny. The most 
famous cartoon characters have always tended to 
centre round the more familiar or domesticated 
animals, since these are the easiest both to 
characterise and to sentimentalise in human 
terms. Not that the early cartoon characters 
wasted much time on sentiment ; that was to come 




DONALD DUCK 
Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 



later. The lirst cartoons produced characters of 
wit rather than feeling drawn in quick, hard out- 
lines; the shrewd calculation of Felix when landed 
in any tough situation or the good-humoured 
astuteness of Mickey Mouse. A new. light-hearted 
Bestiary soon grew up through the lilms. and both 
Felix and Mickey enjoyed fantastic adventures 
limited only by their artists" imagination. 

Meanwhile, sound had come to revolutionise the 
photographic art of the film, to be followed shortly 
by a pack colour process (Technicolor) which 
offered the cartoonist the chance to experiment 
with animated painting as well as animated black- 
and-white outline drawings. The greatest pioneer 
of this style was Walt Disney. Along with other 
pioneers, he introduced to the screen the cartoon 
series with established animal characters and lie 
used initially the simpler graphic style of strip 
cartoon based mainly on outlined figures and back- 
grounds. 




FANTASIA 



(c Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 



PINOCCHIO 





AYalt Disney was primarily responsible for the 
first experiments in : 

— the development of well-timed visual gags 

co-ordinated with music ; 
— the introduction of tonal values into the 

drawings ; 
— the introduction of flat-colour design based on 

Technicolor's initial system. 
In design, Disney, Fleischer and Sullivan looked 
increasingly to Europe, and especially to German 
folk art ; the movement was towards greater 
sophistication in drawing, tonal values and the use 
of colour. 



CINDERELLA 

(© Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 



38 




SYNCHRONISATION ■ An abstract film made in 1934 by 
Joseph Schillinger and Lewis Jacobs, with drawings by 
M.E.Bute (US A) 



THE AVANT-GARDE LINKS 

A N I M A T I O N T O C O N T E MP O R AR Y 

ART 

The first contact made between the drawn film 
and the new forms in art was through the work of 
certain experimental iilm-makers interested prim- 
arily in abstract design and working on the avant- 
garde fringe of professional production in France. 
Germany and Great Britain during the period 
1925-35. the period of the change-over from the 
silent film to the sound film. 



BRAHMS' RHAPSODY, 1931 
many) 



Oscar Fischinger (Ger- 





PLAGUE SUMMER, 1947 • Chester Kessler (USA) 




39 





• ■ 

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Hans Erni 



E. W. Nay 



40 One Melody— Four Painters • H. Seggelke (Germany) 



Severini Jean Cocteau 





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JOIE DE VIVRE, 1934 • Hector Hoppin and Anthony Gross (France) (National Film Archive) 



RAINBOW DANCE, 1936 • Len Lye (Great Britain). The dancer is Robert Helpmann 




CONTEMPORARY DESIGN IN 
PRE-WAR ANIMATION 
Parallel with the development of the early 
animated cartoon came the greatest period of 
revolution and disintegration experienced in the 
whole history of art. Hut almost all cartoon 
lihns remained untouched by these radical 
changes in the conception of what constituted tine 
art. 

Braque, Matisse and Picasso broke down tin- 
dead end of nineteenth-century representational 
and academic art: then they collected the frag- 
ments from the studio floor and put them hack on 



the canvas in new and challenging designs. They 
painted only the essentials, and they differed 
greatly among themselves as to what these 
essentials were. They fragmented their subjects 
and seized on whatever by purpose or accident 
appealed to their graphic sensibilities, their hum- 
our or their destructive impulse. 

The public, quite oblivious of this revolution in 
the studios and art galleries of Europe, laughed 
at the caricature-characters of the strip cartoons 
and the comically humanised animals of the film 
cartoons skilfully designed to be executed with the 
minimum graphic effort. Simplified though they 
were, these figures were fundamentally repre- 
sentational. 

The introduction of a more contemporary gra- 
phic style to popular animation began with an im- 
portant film — 'Joie de Vivre' (1934), designed by 
Hector Hoppin and Anthony Gross. But it re- 
mained an almost isolated example of its kind. 

Only in the abstract work of the avant-garde did 
a whole series of films during the pre-war period 
attempt to bring a modern sense of design and 
colour to animation. This was principally the work 
of Len Lye. who in some of his films combined live 
42 action with animation. 



3 CONTEMPORARY STYLES 



^^ 






V 





Drawing from THE GREAT JEWEL ROBBERY • Vlado 
Kristl (Zagreb Film) 



43 




Drawing from FANTASIA • Stravinsky's ' Rites of Spring '. ( < Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 



44 



THE ANIMATED FILM- STYLES 

The two extremes of art are naturalism and the 
abstract. Naturalism begins as a simple desire to 
copy the superficial appearance of a subject, so 
that it becomes as a drawing or painting immedi- 
ately recognisible for what it is; the artist himself 
does not try to play any greater part in the 
interpretation of the subject than the camera docs 
in a photograph. His skill is that of a recording 
instrument, no more. 

In practice, the representational artist docs 
modify the subject for the sake of graphic economy, 
and in modifying begins to add sonic degree of 
interpretation. He begins to select, to stress now 
this aspect, now that of the subject what he 



regards as its salient features. The result is usually 
some kind of simplification, a cleaning-up of the 
diversities in the appearance of nature for the sake 
of formal values in line, colour and composition. 

The animator has simplification almost forced 
upon him through the multiplicity of pictures that 
have to be drawn for each second of screen action. 
And the traditions of the 'lightning sketch' and 
the strip cartoon of the newspapers achieve the 
effects of naturalism in character and movement 
with the fewest possible deftly suggestive lines and 
the least amount possible of tonal values or 
moulding. He has to represent accurately not only 
the characteristic poses and gestures of his sub- 
jects but their movement in time and space. 



The realistic style of drawing in comedy cartoons 
spread to many countries where animators were 
primarily concerned to entertain large audiences. 
In Asia, for example, it has been adopted by both 
China and Japan. 




THE RED FLOWER • Shanghai Film Studio (China) 



FIGARO AND FRANKIE 

(© Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 





IMPRESSIONISM 

Impressionism is usually regarded as a specia l 
development of naturalism in the treatment of a 
subject . Sir Herbert Read once described it as 'a 
prism held up to nature'. But it is a step in the 
direction of more formal values in art. It discovers 
the surface forms in nature and brings them into 
prominen ce. It grades the subject in terms of light 
and shade ; it stresses the balance of colours . It 
rejects all irrelevances of detail in the passionate 
desire to achieve on canvas the impression of 
formal beauty that the subject has made on the 
artist. 

Impressionism is inevitably stylised ; the special 
nature of the artistic form matters as much to the 
artist as the actual nature of the subject, because 
the formal values themselves become a major part 
of his interpretation. 

In animation, impressionism develops a softness 
and fluidity of movement, the gradual rather than 
rapid blending of colours and tonal values. 



THE ANIMALS AND THE BURGLARS ■ Jiri Trnka (Czechoslovakia) 





HOW THE MOLE GOT HIS TROUSERS ■ Zdenck Miler (Czechoslovakia) 



THE LION AND THE MOUSE • Otto Sacher. Defa (Germany) 




49 




FORMALISM 

There has developed in recent years a strong 
tradition of formalism in animation. Both back- 
grounds and figures are reduced to highly sim- 
plified, stylised outlines — the world drawn in 
terms of lines, squares, rectangles, circles and ovals. 
This, provided the subject lends itself to such 
drastic treatment, makes the animator's task of 
multiplying the pictures for the action very much 
easier, since the elements of movement are for the 
most part as simplified as the outlines. The figures 
dip and slide about without requiring more 
detailed forms of animation : they explode into 
action and then remain still. 

In this way the animated film has made its 
gesture towards cubism. It deliberately exploits 
the two-dimensional delimitations of art and the 
relationship of moving forms, as seen, for example, 
in much Yugoslav animation. 



DOCTOR IN THE HOUSE ■ Character model-sheet for 
television commercial. Larkins Studio (Great Britain) 



CONCERTO FOR SUB-MACHINE GUN • Directed by Dusan Vukotic, designed by B. Kolar. Zagreb Film (Yugoslavia) 



50 





ALONE ■ Directed by V. Mimica. Zagreb Film (Yugoslavia) 



AT THE PHOTOGRAPHER ■ Directed by V. Mimica; 
designed by A. Marks. Zagreb Film (Yugoslavia) 




y - - ■ R * ■ 




FLAT HATTING • Made by U.P.A. for the US Navy 
Flight Safety Section (o Copyright, United Productions of 
America) 




A Television Commercial. U.P.A. (USA) 




THE REVENGE • Dusan Vukotic. Zagreb Film (Yugo- 
slavia) 





Television Commercial for Union Oil Company of California. Playhouse Pictures (USA) 



The high speed of production needed for television 
and the absence of colour in almost all trans- 
missions have influenced producers to return to 
the more elementary styles of outline drawing and 
simple backgrounds for television cartoons. There 
is, generally speaking, little use made of tone in 
the drawings; the strong outlines and the quick, 
simplified movements are reminiscent of the period 
when cartoons first began. 



Television Commercial for Trewax. Playhouse Pictures 
(USA) 




53 



THE ABSTRACT 

Abstract art takes the purely formal values , some 
of which are present in the roots of nature, and 
makes these values the basis of art. The result is 



that forms and colours become themselves the 
subject of art, bearing little or no relation to the 
superficial appearance of nature as we normally 
observe it. except in such patterns as crystals or 
butterflies' wings, or the symbols invented by 
scientists to represent the inner structure of 
molecules. Abstract art implies that beauty 
exists purely in compositions and in the relation- 
ships of patterns and colour . 



Design from an abstract film. R. Miller (Brazil) 










Opening title for a television programme sponsored by General Motors. Abe Liss (USA) 



Animation extends this intellectual concept of 

visual beauty by adding mobility to its form. It 
enables abstract art to exist in time as well as 
space. 



55 




THE INSPECTOR GOES HOME ■ Directed by V. Mimica; 
designed by A. Marks. Zagreb Film (Yugoslavia) 



THE ADVENTURES OF •• John Hubley. Storyboard Inc (USA) 








mi ilium 



inn 



OLIN MATHIKSO 












OLID HATNIMON 




Olin Mathieson Corporate Presentation for Television 

Design, Saul Bass; animation, Playhouse Pictures (USA) 

This appears at the beginning of the Olin Mathieson sponsored television 

series SMALL WORLD, and indicates the firm's range of activities in symbols 



57 










•NK 





■Ma 



Olin Mathieson TV Packaging Commercial ■ Design, Saul Bass; animation, 

Playhouse Pictures (U S A) 

Indicates the range of packaging materials and their functional suitability 








58 



4 THE WORKSHOP 




Phases of animation for the U.P.A. character, Milton Muffet 



59 



An animated film begins, like any other, as an idea 
— an idea for entertainment, an idea to meet the 
needs of a sponsor who wants a film for promotion 
or instruction, an idea for an experiment in the 
medium itself which the artist conceives without 
any immediate thought of profit. Whatever need 
the film serves — entertainment, education, in- 
formation, advertising, experiment — the initial 
idea behind it will soon find its way on to paper in 
the form of words and sketches. 

From these preliminary trials emerge the 
finished script and the storyboard, which are the 
normal blueprints for an animated film. 

The script for an animated film describes in some 
detail the action that the pictures will present and 
what will be heard on the accompanying sound- 
track, especially any dialogue, commentary and 
important sound effects. The storyboard shows the 
action on the screen in the form of a break-down 
in picture-strip form, with not less than a hundred 
pictures representing the key points in the llow of 
the action during ten minutes of screen time. 
Sometimes there may be as many as thirty or 
forty drawings showing every stage in a complex 
action lasting, for example, only one minute. The 
nature of the action also determines the number of 
storyboard sketches required. 

So the storyboard provides the first visual 
choreography for the film, the first exploratory 
expression of the animator's style as it will be 
realised later on the screen in the finished film. 
But it is a still thing; only lines, arrows and odd 
words of description indicate future movement. A 
storyboard is no more a film than a strip-cartoon. 
It is a means towards a film. 



60 



FOO FOO • A Halas and Batchelor character. 
The drawings represent the number of anima- 
tion phases required for one second of action 



A 



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Pages 61 to 66 show the full storyboard for a 
ten-minute colour cartoon, FOR BETTER, 
FOR WORSE. Made by Halas and Batchelor for 
Philips of Holland. The film satirises television 
viewing habits 



61 





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66 






Rough colour sketches. FOR BETTER, FOR WORSE. Halas and Batchelor for Philips of Holland (Great Britain) 



Once the continuity of story and action has been 
determined, the next phase is the introduction of 
colour continuity through rough coloured sketches. 
The general design and How of the film as a whole 
controls the nature of each individual colour sketch, 
because colour seen in action and movement 
reveals different qualities from the qualities 
possessed by colour in a static composition. 



67 




Character sketches for LITTLE BOY WITH A BIG HORN. 
U.P.A. (USA) 






68 



When the animator is sure of the main line of his 
action and the nature of his principal characters, 
he brings the drawings that embody his story and 
actors to life. 

There is all the difference between a figure 
drawn in a scries of static poses and a ligure that 
actually moves. In some of the early cartoons a 
live performer dressed like the character in the 
cartoon would be filmed in motion and his move- 
ments subsequently traced frame by frame as a 



guide to the animators. But what a cartoon figure 
does and a living creature does can never be the 
same thing. The more ' natural ' or representational 
the movements of a drawn figure the more 
awkwardly artificial the result appears on the 
screen. All the laborious copying from life is wrong 
in principle. A drawing is an artificial thing, and it 
requires correspondingly artificial movements. 
Then, and then only, does it appear 'natural'. 



The actual characterisation of a drawn figure is 
worked out with very little regard for what its 
opposite number in real life might do. First of all 
it is simplified to what is essential for its dramatic 
needs, for a cartoon character cannot express 
more than one thing at a time. It has no psycho- 
logical complexity, though it can often achieve 



great subtlety of expression along its one-track 
line of character whether it he an animal-type or 
a human-type figure. Bui the characters of cartoon 
arc all one-track characters Felix the (;if. 
Mickey Mouse. Donald Duck. Tom and Jerry, Foo 
Foo and Mister Magoo. 









Character drawings for Mister Magoo. U.P.A. (USA) 



69 




V 7/V 




-"V** 




Character drawing for the Viennese 
psycho-analyst in THE VIOLINIST. 
Ernest Pintoff (USA) 



70 



The preparatory sketches for effective cartoon 
characters anticipate their flexibility of outline, 
forecasting an easy graphic movement through 
from one characteristic pose to the next. These 
supple outlines How from one position to the next, 
always bearing in mind that in all but the most 
highly personal films a team of artists is needed to 
complete the thousands of drawings that will give 
the characters life. This team, graded as key 
animators and assistant animators, needs to have 



a sympathetic understanding of the characters, 
and this includes understanding the nature and 
mobility of the outlines through which the 
characters will for the most part express them- 
selves. Sympathetic music and the imaginative 
use of voices help ; but these add another and quite 
separate dimension to the character: they cannot 
cover up what is essential to good animation — 
effective design and effective movement. 



The advance sketches, therefore, explore the 
character itself and discover the most economical 
outlines that will express his range of feeling and 
reaction in the story, while at the same time 
giving him a visual style that belongs to the film 
as a whole. A cartoon character has to win his 
audience without any of the initial advantages of 
being llesh-and-blood like themselves, which the 
live actor or actress or living animal possess. This 
is why most entertainment cartoons have used 
caricatures — on the whole it seemed easier to 
excite laughter than sympathy through moving 
drawings. Only more recently has the range of 
animation subjects widened to include certain 
forms of serious or sympathetic characterisation. 
In designing a serious or comparatively straight 
human character, the animator emphasises boldly 
the kind of person he is. 

Although the figures succeed primarily as 
simplified character-drawings and not as natural- 
istic studies from life, they must bear some 
relationship to real life, however limited, so that 
they can attract or amuse their human audience. 
So most cartoon characters reflect or exaggerate 
certain immediately recognisable human char- 
acteristics. Some familiarity with the animals he 
draws is essential to the animator, though he 
isolates just so much as he needs from his real- 
life models and forgets the rest in his search for 
what will be effective for comedy or drama. 





71 



Character drawing of a woman for THE 
VIOLINIST, and a close-up sketch of the 
main character. Ernest Pintoff (USA) 



The principal character in 
THE VIOLINIST. Ernest Pin- 
toff (USA) 





72 




In some of the best cartoons, the characters are so 
stylised that they are quite literally 'figures of 
fun", nonsense figures. They are visual jokes 
rather than beings, moving blobs, patterns, shapes 
and lines, with voices that are little more than 
sound effects. Their humour is their own. as inde- 



finable as an embryo, or the passionate wrigglings 
of a one-line worm. They can expand, contract. 

pop and burst in synchronisation with the strange 
noises devised Cor the sound-track. They have 
freedom of being and are the purest cartoon then- 
is. apart from the abstract film itself. 



Finished drawing for THE VIOLINIST. Ernest Pintoff (USA) 




73 






Completed drawings from 

THE INTERVIEW. Ernest Pintoff (USA) 




The scale of all figures in the film is carefully 
worked out. The relative size of one character to 
another, and of all of them to the background, does 
not normally correspond to the proportions of real 
life. Heads may be much larger in proportion to 
the rest of the body; feet may be enormous, the 
eyes huge. Part of the graphic characterisation 
may turn evil characters into menacing giants or 
scuttling dwarf's. But scale they all have as 
drawings, and their scale is part of their character. 



Scale drawings from a film project 
entitled THE LEOPARD LOST HIS 
SPOTS. Halas and Batchelor (Great 
Britain) 









Pages 76 to 78 show working lay-out sketches for the guidance of artists. Part of the preparatory work for FOR BETTER, 
FOR WORSE. Halas and Batchelor (Great Britain) 



Whether the film needs some degree of accuracy or 
not in its backgrounds, the design of the settings 
shares the same graphic style as that of the 
characters. In many forms of animation, accuracy 
in the drawing matters a great deal — in industrial 
and technical films, for example — though for 
clarity certain simplifications are necessary. 






The sketches show various nationalities looking at each other through television 





Atmosphere drawings. Groups watch- 
ing television 



78 





Preliminary art work. Walt Disney Pro- 
ductions 



A story sketch, from a series outlining 
the basic action, showing Donald 
hunting in Mathmagical Forest from 
the Walt Disney picture, DONALD IN 
MATHMAGICLAND 

A styling sketch of the Mathmagic 
Forest to establish the mathematical 
idea 




A styling sketch of Greek architecture 
to set the atmosphere in the comparison 
of mathematical forms in construction 
((f) Copyright Walt Disney Productions, 
USA) 





y, f r 



Story sketch. Donald finding his way through 
the maze of mathmagical forms 



Preliminary art work for DONALD IN MATHMAGICLAND 
(© Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 




Styling sketches. The weird mathematical 
forms found in Mathmagic Forest 




Styling sketch. A rough rendering of colour and style to be 
used in the finished background of the picture 





Atmosphere sketches, with clean, sharp styling 



A styling sketch. This is one rendering of the many 
styles tested to find the right effect for presenting a 
rocket launching 



Preliminary art work for MAN IN SPACE 

(( Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 



Styling sketch. Forms and effects in outer space 




■ 81 




An important development in the pictorial aspect 
of animation has been the elimination of the hard 
outlines that emphasise and isolate the figure. This 
gives the total picture the fluidity of a painting in 
movement. A pioneer of this style and method of 
work is John Ilublev. 



82 



Animation drawings from 
MOONBIRD. John Hub- 
ley. Storyboard Produc- 
tions (USA) 





Pages 83 to 86 show PRELUDE POUR ORCHESTRE, VOIX ET CAMERA 
Direction, animation, painting and music by Arcady (France) 
This film is based on a poem by Juan Liscano, ' Fille de la Mer et de la Nuit '. 
'Wandering in an infinite universe but imprisoned in himself, man can only 
seek justification in the hopeless search for perfection.' 



Arcady uses special camera equipment with 
variable speed controls that allow him to film in a 
predetermined rhythm phenomena such as smoke 
that cannot be filmed by means of stop-motion 
photography. 

He also frequently uses a mechanical adaptation 
of the cathode ray oscillograph called the traceur 
d'ectoplasmes. This enables him to combine special 
lighting effects with his static backgrounds, such 
as fantastic landscapes which are designed either 
in a single plane or in a series of planes set up in 
depth, the so-called multiplane system. 

The lighting effects originate from a coloured 
luminous spot which is broken up and projected 
onto an oscillating mirror which reflects the 



resultant rays onto a translucent screen, where 
they become integrated with the static back- 
grounds. The cyclic movements of the lighting 
effects are filmed phase by phase using a stop- 
motion camera technique, which creates an 
evolving animation in the total image. 

A rich accumulation of textures is achieved in 
A ready's films by interposing in the trajectory of 
the lighl source screens and masks which are 
themselves subject to controlled motion. Tin- total 
How of movement remains highly flexible and can 
be combined with other visual elements, such as 
painting, kaleidoscopic images and drawn anima- 
tion. 



83 




85 



86 




THE GREAT JEWEL ROB- 
BERY • Vlado Kristl. Zagreb 
Film (Yugoslavia) 







The Yugoslav artist Vlado Kristl of Zagreb Film 
adopts yet another style : while the figures are 
outlined, they are none the less closely integrated 
in style and colour to the picture as a whole, and 
the background is usually dominant. 





87 



Designing for wide screen creates additional prob- 
lems for the artist. If he is to take advantage of 
the new screen ratios, the designer has to realise 
that there are great dramatic opportunities for 
him to develop in the sheer magnitude of the 
screen. 



THE SHRIKE ■ Title design by Saul Bass for 
Jose Ferrer— Universal-International produc- 
tion (USA) 

The opening frames show a pair of scissors 
which are then grasped by a hand. Gradually a 
strip containing the credits for the film moves 
down into the frame. Each credit is snipped off 
—after passing through the scissors 



88 





> AND CONDUCTED 
BV FfZAtflC DEVOL. 




THE BIG KNIFE • Title design by Saul Bass 
for the Robert Aldrich— United Artists produc- 
tion (USA) 

The title opens on a black screen showing the 
top of a man's head. As the camera pans down 
slightly, one sees that he is holding his head 
with his hands. His gestures reveal inner 
torment. The titles appear; immediately prior 
to the last credit, the screen cracks, and the 
cracks widen to form a completely white 
screen on which the last credit appears 




%# % 



B0NJ0UR.1PI8TE88E 








89 



BONJOUR TRISTESSE • Title design by Saul Bass for the Otto 
Preminger— Columbia film 

The title was intended to convey in abstract terms the diverse moods 
of gaiety and sadness in the film. It opens with gaily coloured forms 
breaking in against a black background, to gay music. As the mood 
and the music change, so the colours deepen and the forms become 
more flower-like with dropping petals. These petals dissolve until 
only one is left. From this forms a face and the petal becomes a 
tear. The credits appear intermittently throughout this development 







TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUNK AND BOOM • (© Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 





THE CULTURED APE ■ Halas and Batchelor— A BC Television (Great Britain) 



THE INSOLENT MATADOR • 
Halas and Batchelor— ABC Tele- 
vision (Great Britain) 




Designing' with the plastic pencil, the technique 
used in the Halas and Batchelor Habatale series, 
has the combined advantage of making production 
much quicker and of retaining the freshness which 
comes from the artist working directly on the 
celluloid, instead of producing work which others 
have to trace and paint. In this form of production 
the need for tracers and painters is eliminated. 





MOUKENGUE • Denise Charvein and Yona Friedman. 
Sitec (France) 





MOUKENGUE 

This is a film derived from African folklore, and 
the drawings arc based on rock paintings in 
Fezzan. The technique used in this film is verbal 
narration accompanied by animated drawings. 
Although the length of the film is almost a 
thousand feet, it was shot in only fifteen hours; 
the movements of the drawn actors were controlled 
individually and reduced to essential phases only 
in the words of the producer. 'The drawn actors 
were directed before the camera as real actors 
usually arc." Not only the style of drawing but also 
the story and the music arc authentically African. 



5 THE INTERNATIONAL PANORAMA 




? 5$ 



v© 




Successive phases of animation for a full turn taking half a second 



93 



Animation, particularly in the form of hand-drawn 
cartoon film, has been widening its scope rapidly 
during the past few years. To the public it is still 
best known as light entertainment on the screens 
of both the cinema and television, and also as 
comic relief from the heavier kind of advertising 
film and television commercial. But it is used now 
in almost every way in which the live-action film 
is used — for films that explain and teach, for 
technical and scientific films, for documentary 
films and even, in certain special instances, in 
serious dramatic art. 

The design of the popular entertainment cartoon 
tends to be traditional, similar in many ways to 
drawing as it appears in the conventional comic 
strips and in book illustration. 

Following the post-war success of certain pioneer 
lihn-makers who introduced extreme forms of 
graphic stylisation into cartoons made for popular 
entertainment, other producers in America and 
elsewhere have followed this example and been 
successful in amusing a public that was almost 
entirely inexperienced in the humour that be- 
longs to highly original forms of stylisation in 
comic drawing. 

Creative artists in animation are developing 
94 new. individual styles in many different countries. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUNK AND BOOM • (< Copyright Walt Disney Productions, USA) 




> 



Walt Disney's productions, though normally much 
more traditional in design and using meticulously 
executed and highly complex moulded drawing, 
have also in certain cases reflected the new fashion 
for stylisation. 




^H 



st 
#- 



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=**e 




DREWRYS 



Commercial for National Bohemian Beer. Quartet Films 



Commercial for Drewrys Beer. Quartet Films 



96 I 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 





FORD SHAGGY DOG, a commercial 
for Ford Dealers of Southern Cali- 
fornia. Playhouse Pictures 



Opening of the Ford Show, NBC — TV, 
featuring the Ford Dog. Playhouse 
Pictures 




THERE'S SPRING IN THE AIR • John 
Sutherland Productions. Commercial 
for Oldsmobile 



Television commercials are brief essays in anima- 
tion which offer certain special opportunities for 
experiments in visual wit. 



97 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




Television Commercial. Quartet Films 
Television Commercial. U.P.A. 



98 




> v J 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 








that's not a FORD 




Television Commercial using the skip-frame technique, 
known also as pixillation. Abe Liss for the Ford Motor 
Company 



99 







Commercial for Coca-Cola. Robert Lawrence Animation 






Commercial for the Adell Chemical Company. Robert 
Lawrence Animation 



100 




MILK BONE • A series of 
frames from a commercial 
for the National Biscuit 
Company. Robert 
Lawrence Animation 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




Television Commercial for the Laclede 
Gas Company. Quartet Films 



Television Commercial for 

Carnation Milk. Playhouse 

Productions 




Television Opening for the 

Ford Show. Playhouse 

Productions 




f 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



THE ADVENTURES OF -*- • John Hubley. Storyboard 




HARLEM 
WEDNESDAY 
John Hubley. 
Storyboard 



102 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




- 



A child suffering from undernourishment 



Three drawings from CHILDREN OF THE SUN ■ John and 
Faith Hubley. Storyboard for the United Nations Children's 
Fund (UNICEF). The film is in colour, with a score performed 
by Pablo Casals and the Budapest String Quartet 



A child learning how to feed himself 



A child concentrating on his new discoveries 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




1001 NIGHTS • U.P.A. 
THE JAY WALKER • U.P.A. 



104 




CANADA 




NOW IS THE TIME • Norman McLaren. 
National Film Board for the Festival of Britain 

DUCK HUNTER • A Television promotional spot. CBS-TV. Storyboard, Gerald Potterton; Animation, Jeff Hale 




105 







gg£ ^Bp 



MB . 



WILLIAM TELL • A Television promotional spot. 
CBC— TV. Storyboard and Animation: Gerald Potterton 



METRO • A Television 

promotional spot. CBC— TV. 

Storyboard and Animation: 

Derek Lamb 




106 



METRO ■ A Television 

promotional spot. CBC— TV. 

Storyboard and Animation: 

Gerald Potterton 



CANADA 





CANADA 



LIFESPAN Road Safety 
Television spot. Storyboard and 
Animation: Kaj Pindal 



MOOSE • Forest fire safety 
spot for television. Storyboard: 
Gerald Potterton. Animation: 
Kaj Pindal 



A IS FOR ARCHITECTURE 

A colour film on the history 

of architecture. Direction and 

design: Robert Verral and 

Gerald Budner (National Film 

Board) 





ABSTRACT DESIGN • Roberto Miller 






Lg|v^ 



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eX3 



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s 



108 







BRAZIL 




BRAZIL 



NOVAS EXPERIENCES ABSTRATAS ■ Roberto Miller 



SOUND ABSTRACT ■ Roberto Miller 




DANCE COLOUR • Roberto Miller 




SPAIN 



Commercial for Licor 43. Estudios Moro 




110 




ITALY 




Three drawings from WELCOME 
TO ROME. A short entertainment 
cartoon satirising tourists in 
Rome. Designed by Pino Zac for 
Royfilm 




111 




Two drawings from AN AWARD FOR SIGNOR ROSSI. A 
short cartoon parodying film festivals. Bruno Bozzetto 




112 



ITALY 




ITALY 



HISTORY OF INVENTION • Bruno Bozzetto 




THE HISTORY OF ARMS 


Bruno Bozzetto 






^■l 


Pai 


1 J 




V • j^^^J 


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■(BWW^^^^^^^^^^Pt- 


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113 



ITALY 




Advertising films produced by Pagot of Milan 




SU DUE RUOTE for the cinemas 




SU DUE RUOTE for the cinemas 



DIM Ml COME SCRIVI for the cinemas 



BRUNILDE E SIGFRIDO for television 




Advertising films produced 
by Pagot of Milan. C'E OLIO 
E OLIO, MA for television 



ITALY 




FRANCE 




.. ;,•-.- 



DEMAIN PARIS • A public relations film on the re-planning of Paris. 
Michel Boschet and Andre Martin. Films Roger Leenhardt 



116 




UN ATOME QUI VOUS 
VEUT DU BIEN ■ Henri 
Gruel. Hermes Film 



MAGIEMODERNE • Jean 
Image 




FRANCE 



FRANCE 





PATAMORPHOSE • Michel Boschet 
and Andre Martin. Films Roger 
Leenhardt. For Radio-Diffusion et 
Television Francaise. 
Described by its makers as 'an 
exercise in style', this film shows a 
painter who is working on a canvas 
in the Jardin du Luxembourg in Paris 
as he might be represented in twenty- 
five different animation styles 



118 




FRANCE 




Commercial for McVitie and Price • Andre Sarrut. Sine 



PRELUDE POUR ORCHESTRE, VOIX ET CAMERA • Arcady 




119 



RUSSIA 




THE LITTLE MAGIC 
HORSE • Producer: I. 
Ivanov-Vano. Artist: L. 
Miltshin 




THE GOLDEN ANTE- 
LOPE • Producer: L. 
Atamanov. Artists: A. 
Vinokurov and I, Schwarz- 
mann 



RUSSIA 





THE ELEPHANT AND 
THE ANT • Producers: 
B. Dezhkin and G. Phil- 
lipov. Artist: G. Pozin. 



ANUNUSUALMATCH 
Producers: M. Pashcenko 
and B. Dezhkin. Artists: 
B. Dezhkin and V. Vasil- 
enko. 



121 



POLAND 




CAT AND MOUSE 



THE LITTLE CHIMNEY SWEEP 



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TOURNAMENT 





THE CLOWN AND HIS DOG PIKUS THE CLOWN AND THE MOON 

Directed by Vladislav Nehrebecki for the Film Studio of Lodz 




THE GHOST THAT CAN'T TAKE IT 
Film Polski 




123 



THE TREASURE OF THE PIRATES 
L. Marszlek. Film Polski 



POLAND 




HUNGARY 



Productions of the Pannonia Film Studio, Budapest 



Cinema advertising film for cigarette DARU 



Cinema advertising film for Ordon Radio 



THE ANGELIC STORY • A safety film 




Cinema advertising film for Ordon Radio 



HUNGARY 



Productions of the Pannonia Film Studio, Budapest 



Cinema advertising film for 
Palmolive soap 




Cinema advertising film for 
aluminium pans 




RUMANIA 



A self-caricature of the artist 
Popescu Gopo 





HOMO SAPIENS • A short 

satirical film in colour about 

the evolution of mankind from 

his past to his future. Director: 

Popescu Gopo 







SWEDEN 




* * 




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THE MONEY STORY ■ Coinage in Sweden 







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A television short for the National Society for 
Road Safety 



Team Film AB Productions 



127 








I /' 



THE MONEY STORY • Team Film AB Productions 



128 



SWEDEN 



TEENAGER • A commercial in 

colour for Cloetta chocolate. 

A Sandrew-Team Production 



TOURIST-ROULETTE 
Another commercial in colour 
for Cloetta Chocolate. A 
Sandrew-Team Production 





FINLAND 



ALCOHOL IN THE HUMAN 

BODY ■ Direction and 

animation: Robert Balser and 

Felix Forsman 




129 



GERMANY 




PRINZESSIN SPRINGWASSER • A silhouette film, directed by Brune J. Bottge 



KNALLEIDOSKOP • Herbert Hunger and Jurgen 
Priebe 



PURPLELINE • Karl Ludwig Ruppel and Flo Nordhoff 





WM 


B^r^ M 


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JAPAN 



KITTEN SCRIBBLING 
Toie Studio 




131 



CZECHOSLOVAKIA 




THREE MEN • Director: Vladimir Lehky A PLACE IN THE SUN • Director: Frantisek Vistrcil 



132 PRSH A DRSK Czech State Fil 




CZECHOSLOVAKIA 




LOOK OUT! ■ Jiri Brdecka 



1 HOW THE MOLE GOT HIS TROUSERS • Zdenck Miler 

2 THE PUPPY AND THE FROGS • Zdenck Miler 

3 THE STORY OF THE BASS CELLO • Jiri Trnka 

4 MR. PROKOUK, ACROBAT ■ Karel Zeman 
Czech State Film 




CZECHOSLOVAKIA 



CAT TALK • Bretislav Pojar BOMB MANIA • Bretislav Pojar 





HE PUPPY AND THE SUN • Zdenck Miler HE INVENTION OF DESTRUCTION ■ Karel Zeman 






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Czech State Film 





Scene from an instructional film Ginding cocoa-beans in an old Dutch mill. A paper-sculpture film 



MOONGLOW • An entertainment cartoon 



Productions of Martin Toonder 





Two scenes from a production by Joop Geesink 



HOLLAND 



MEXICO 




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AESOP'S FABLES • Gamma Productions (Mexico City) 




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MEXICO 






Television commercials 
(R. K. Tomkins Association) 




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137 



YUGOSLAVIA 

The productions of Zagreb Film 




Design for one of the principal 
characters in a cartoon adaptation of 
Balzac's PEAU DE CHAGRIN. 
Directors: Vlado Kristl and Ivo 
Vrbanic 






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THE GREAT JEWEL ROBBERY 

Director: Mladen Feman. Designer: 

Vlado Kristl 



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YUGOSLAVIA 




THE TWO SNAILS • Based on a poem by Jacques Prevert. Director: Branko Ranitovic 





YUGOSLAVIA 



CONCERTO FOR SUB-MACHINE GUN 
Director: Dusan Vukotic. Designer: B. Kolar 





YUGOSLAVIA '• 





PICCOLO 

Director: 

Dusan Vukotic 




141 




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AT THE PHOTOGRAPHER • Director: V. Mimica. Designer: A. Marks 




142 



YUGOSLAVIA 





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AN ALL ROUND HELP ■ Introducing a new robot character. Director: Nikola Kostelac. Designer: A. Marks 



A CRAZY HEART • Director: Nikola Kostelac. Designer: V. Kostanjsek 




143 




* 




THE EGG 

Director: Vatroslav Mimica. 

A satire on abstract sculpture 




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YUGOSLAVIA 



YUGOSLAVIA 



A SMALL TRAIN • Director: 

Dragutin Vunak. Designer: 

Borivoj Dovnikovic 





ALL THE DRAWINGS OF 

THE TOWN • Director: 

Ivo Vrbanic 





THE MAN AND HIS 
SHADOW • Director: 
Dragutin Vunak. Designer: 
Aleksander Srnec 



145 



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YUGOSLAVIA 



THE BOY AND THE EALL • Director and Designer: B. Kolar 




-..,, DON QUIXOTE 

a8 (TP^/nrr Director and Designer: Vlado Kristl 





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LOST MIDNIGHT • Mladen Feman. Designer. Aleksandav Marks 





PIPING HOT • Halas and 
Batchelor for the Gas Council. 
Designer: Tom Bailey 




THE HISTORY OF 
AMERICAN WHISKY • Louis 
de Rochemont Associates Inc. 
for Seagrams Inc. Design: 
George Him. Animation by 
Halas and Batchelor 



147 



GREAT BRITAIN 




FOLLOW THAT CAR ■ Shell 
Petroleum Co Ltd. Designer: Tom 
Bailey. Halas and Batchelor 




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148 



GREAT BRITAIN 






THE ENERGY PICTURE • Halas 
and Batchelor for British Petrol- 
eum. Directed by John Halas and 
Gerald Potterton. Designer: 
Austin Campbell 



PIPING HOT • Halas and 
Batchelorforthe Gas Council 





149 



GREAT BRITAIN 




SPRATT'S TOP DOG 

Designer: Richard Williams 







THE WARDROBE • Designed 
and directed by George 
Dunning 



Productions of TV Cartoons 



MOTHER'S PRIDE BREAD 
Designer: Richard Williams 




150 



GREAT BRITAIN 



GREAT BRITAIN 





POLYGAMOUS POLONIUS 

Designed and directed by 

R. M. Godfrey 




MILDRED ■ For British 

Petroleum. Designed and 

directed by Vera Lenica and 

Nancy Hanna 



Productions of Biographic 





GREAT BRITAIN 



HELLO JOE • Television 
commercial for Esso Blue. 
Biographic 



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YOUR SKIN • World Wide 
Animation for Unilever 




PHARMACY FOR YOU • A 
Larkins Production (Film 
Producers' Guild). Sponsor: 
Boots Pure Drug Co Ltd 




>i. > 



EARTH IS A BATTLEFIELD ■ Larkins Production. 
(Film Producers' Guild) for the Iron and Steel Federation 





LEMON HART RUM • A 
cinema advertising film based 
on Ronald Searle's drawings. 
A Larkins Production 
(Film Producers' Guild) 



153 



GREAT BRITAIN 



GREAT BRITAIN 





I '/ 




OLD MOTHER CREWCUT'S 
HICCUP RESTORER The 
Arnold Doodle Show for ATV 




SENIOR SERVICE • A television commer- 
cial 



154 



SHELL DUEL An 

advertising film in 

colour for the cinemas 




Director: Nick Spargo 

Productions of Nicholas Cartoon Films 




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Television commercial for Dapple 




Productions of Digby Turpin Films 



Television commercial for 
Guinness 



Television commercial for 
Woodbines 



Television commercial for 
Chivers Jellies 






Television propaganda. KEEP 
BRITAIN TIDY • Film Guild 
Animation 



TWO-STROKE ENGINE • An 

instructional film. Director: Francis 

Rodker. Shell Film Unit 

PHOTO-EMISSION • An 

instructional film produced by 

Merton Park Studios for Mullard and 

the Educational Foundation for 

Visual Aids 



156 



GREAT BRITAIN 




GREAT BRITAIN 



Finished drawings from I WANNA 
MINK, one of a series of entertainment 
cartoons for A B C Television. Director: 
John Halas. Designer: Peter Sachs. 
Halas and Batchelor 





157 




RENT 




BLUE CHIP ■ Public relations film 
for Morphy Richards Ltd. 
Group Two Animation 



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ROAD DRILL ■ Television 
commercial for Ringers. A.1. Light 
Tobacco. Group Two Animation 






158 



TOP DOG, one of a series of paper- 
sculpture films produced by Halas 
and Batchelor for ABC Television 



GREAT BRITAIN 




INDEX OF NAMES AND TITLES 



Adventures of *. The 50, 102 

Aesop's Fables 136 

A is for Architecture 107 

Alcohol in the Human Body 129 

All Round Help. An 143 

. Ill the Drawings of the Town 145 

.Hone 51 

Anatomy of a Murder 12—13 

Angelic Story. The 124 

Animal Farm 35 

Animals and the Burglars, The 48 

Arcady S3 86, Hit 

. 1 mold Doodle 1 54 

Atamanov, L. 120 

Atome qui vons vent iln Mien, Un 

117 
At the Photographer 51, 142 
Award for Signor Rossi, An 112 

Bailey. Tom 1 17, 148 
Balser, Robert 129 
Bass. Saul 13, 57, 58. 88-89 
Begone Dull Care 11 
Big Knife. The 83 
Biographic 151, 152 
Blinkity Blank 21 
Blue Chip 158 
Bomb Mania 134 
Bonjour Tristesse 89 
Boschet, Michel 110. 118 
Bottge, Bruno J. 130 
Boy and the Ball. The 14<i 
Bozzetto, Bruno 23, 112-13 
Brahms' Rhapsody 39 
Brdecka, Jiri 133 
Brunilde e Sigfrido 1 14 
Budner. Gerald 107 
Bugs Bunny 30 

Campbell, Austin 149 

Cat and the Mouse. The 122 

Cat Talk 134 

C'e Olio e Olio. Ma 1 1 5 

Charvein. Denise 92 

Children in the Sun 103 

Cinderella 38 

Clown and his Dog. The 122 

Cocteau, Jean 40 

Cohl, Emile 34 

Colombo Plan, '/'he 17 



Concerto for Sub-Machine (inn 50, 

1 10 
Crazy Heart. A 143 
Cultured Ape. The 90 

Dance Colour 109 

Dante e Beatrice 1 1 t 

Demain Paris 1 1 6 

Dezhkin, B. 121 

Ditnnii come Scrivi 114 

Disney, Walt 7. 36-38, 44-46, 79-81 

Doctor in the House 50 

Donald Duck 36 

Donald in Mathmagicland 79-80 

Don Quixote 146 

Dovnikovie, Borivoj 145 

Dowt) a Long Way 18 

Drdme chez les Fantoches 34 

Duck Hunter 105 

Dunning. George 150 

Earth is a Battlefield 1 53 
Egg. The 144 

Elephant and the .Int. The 121 
Energy Picture. The 149 
Krni, Hans 40 
Estudios Moro 110 
Elude de la Cinetique 24 
Extraordinary Match, The 47 

Fantasia 37, 44 

Felix the Cat 34, 36-37 

Fenian, Mladen 138. 14(i 

Figaro and Frankic 45 

Film Guild Animation 156 

Fischinger, Oscar 7, 39 

Flat Hatting 52 

Fleischer, .Max 7. 38 

Follow that Car 148 

Foo Foo (iO 

For Better, For Worse (it 07. 70-78 

Foreman, Felix 129 

Friedman. Yona 92 

Gccsink. .loop 135 

Ghost that Can't Take It, The 123 

Godfrey. R. M. 101 

Golden Antelope. The 120 

Goofy 36 

Gopo, Popescu 126 

Great Jewel Robbery, The 22, 43, 87, 
138 



Gross. Anthony 7. 41 42 
Group Two Animation 158 
Gruel. Henri 1 17 

Hale, .Jeff 105 

Hanna, Nancy 151 

Harlem Wednesday 102 

Hello doc 1 52 

Helpmann, Robert 42 

Him. George 147 

History of American Whisky, The 

147 
History of . irms 1 1 3 
History of Invention, The 147 
Homo Sapiens 126 
Hoppin, Hector 7, 41 42 
Hon- the Mole Got his Trousers 49, 

133 
Hubley. John 23. 56. 82. 102 03 
Hunger. Herbert 130 

Image, Jean 1 17 

Insolent Matador, The 9, 14, 91 

Inspector goes Home. The 56 

Interview, The 74 

Invention of Destruction. Tin- 134 

Ivanov-Vano 120 

/ wanna Mink 157 

Jacobs, Lewis 39 
Jay Walker, The 104 
Joie de Vivre 41-42 

Keep Britain Tidy 150 

Kessler. Chester 39 

Kitten Scribbling 131 

Knalleidoskop 1 30 

Kolar. B. 50. 140, 140 

Kostanjsek, V. 143 

Kostelac, Nikola 143 

Krazy Kat 30 

Kristl. Vlado 22, 43. 87. 138. 140 

Lamb. Derek 106 

Larkins Studio, The 50, 152 

Lawrence. Robert 100 

Lehky, Vladimir 132 

Lemon Hart Rum 153 

Lenica. Vera 151 

Leopard Lost his Spots, Tin- 75 

Lifespan 107 

Lion and the Mouse. The 49 



159 



160 



Liss, Abe 55, !)!) 

Little Boy with a Big Horn 08 

Little Chimney Sweep, The 122 

Little Magic Horse, The 120 

Lost Midnight 146 

Lye, Len 7, 42 

McLaren, Norman 10, 11, 21, 105 

Macskassy, Gyula 23. 125 

Magic Moderne 117 

Man and his Shadow, The 145 

Man with the Golden .Inn, The 13 

.Marks, A. 51, 50. 142. 143. 140 

Marszlek, L. 123 

Martin, Andre 110. 118 

Merle. La 10 

Metro 106 

Mickey Mouse 36—37 

Mildred 151 

Miler. Zdenck 49, 133 34 

Milk Hone 100 

Miller. Roberto 54. 108-09 

Miltshin. L. 120 

Mimica, Vatroslav 51. 50. 142. 144 

Mister Magoo 0!) 

Mr. Prokouk, Acrobat 133 

Monet) Story, The 127-28 

Moonbird 82 

Moonglow 135 

Moose 107 

Mothers Pride Bread 150 

Moukengue !)2 

Muntschler, Berthon 24 

Nay. E. W. 40 
Ncbrebecki, Vladislav 122 
Nordholi. Flo 130 
Now is the Time 105 

Old Mother ('rental's Ificcn/) Restorer 

154 
One Melody Four Painters 40 

Oscar for Signor Rossi, An 28 

Pagol ill 15 
Paschenko, M. 121 
Patamorphose 1 18 
Peacock 15 16 

PeaU tie Chagrin 138 

Pencil anil the Rubber, The 125 

Pharmacy for You 152 
Phillipov, (;. 121 



Photo-Emission 1 50 

Piccolo 19-20, 141 

Pikus the Clown and the Moon 122 

Pindal. Kaj 107 

Pinocchio 37 

Pintoff. Ernest 70 74 

Piping Hot 147, 149 

Place in the Sun, A 132 

Plague Summer 39 

Playhouse Pictures 15. 10, 47, 53, 

101 
Pluto 30 

Pojar, Bretislav 134 
Polygamous Polonius 151 
Popeye 33 

Potterton, Gerald 105 07, 149 
Pozin, G. 121 
Prelude pour Orchestre, Voix et 

Camera 83-80, 119 
Priebe. Jurgen 130 
Prinzessin Springwasser 1 30 
Prsh a Drsk 132 
Puppy and the Frogs, The 133 
Puppy and the Sun, The 134 
Purpleline 130 

Quartet Films 98, 101 

Rainbow Dance 41 
Ranitovic, Kranko 139 
Red Floicers, The 45 
Reluctant Dragon, The 46 
Revenge, The 52 
Richter, Hans 7 
Road Drill 138 
Rodker, Francis 150 
Ruppel, Karl Ludwig 130 

Sacber. Otto 49 

Sachs, Peter 157 
Sarrut, Andre 119 
Schillinger, Joseph 39 

Scliwarzmann, 1. 120 
Searle. Ronald 153 
Seggelke, H. 40 
Senior Service 154 
Severini 40 
Shaggy Dog 97 
Shell Duel 151 
Short History. . 1 23 
Shrike. The 88 



Small Train, A 145 

Song of the Prairie 40 

Spargo, Nick 154 

SpratVs Top Dog 150 

Srnec, Aleksander 145 

Story of the Bass Cello, The 133 

St rani Mondo 114 

Su Due Ruote 114 

Sullivan, Pat 7, 35, 38 

Sutberland. Jobn 97 

Synchronisation 39 

Teenager 128 

Tender Game 23 

There's Spring in the Air 97 

Thousand and One Nights 104 

Three Men 132 

Tomkins, R. A. 137 

Toot, Whistle, Plunk and Boom 90, 

95 
Top Dog 158 
Tourist- Roulette 128 
Tournament 122 
Treasure of the Pirates, The 123 
Trnka, Jiri 48, 133 
Turpin, Digby 155 
Two Snails, The 139 
Two Stroke FJngine 156 

Unusual Match, The 121 
U.P.A. 52, 59, 68-69, 98, 104 

Verral, Robert 107 
Victory through Airpoiver 40 
Vinokurov, A. 120 
Violinist, The 70 73 
Visilenko, V. 121 
Vistrcil, Frantisek 132 
Vrbanic, Ivo 138, 145 
Vukotic, Dusan 19, 50, 140, 141 
Vunak, Dragutin 145 

Wardrobe, The 150 
Welcome to Rome 111 
Williams, Richard 150 
William Tell 100 
World Wide Animation 152 

Fes, / Know 47 
Your Skin 1 52 

Zac, Pino 111 
Zeman, Karel 133-34 



About the Authors : 

Equally at home in New York, h 
or London, John Halas, with hi 3 wifi 
Batchelor, heads Halas & Batcl • 
Cartoon Films Ltd., founded ov r twei 
years ago and now one of the \a 
leading animation studio organ 
Dr. Roger Manvell, author, criti< 
screenwriter, was for more thar I 
Director of the British Film Ace ; 
is Editor of the Journal of the Soc 
Film and Television Arts in Lord 
book, The Animated Film, was ent 
illustrated by drawings from th« Halas & 
Batchelor animated feature film 
"Animal Farm". 

Also by John Halas and Roger Manvell: 

THE TECHNIQUE OF FILM ANIMATION 

This standard handbook on animation for 
films and television demonstrat 
explains the aims, methods and 
organization of making animated films— 
for entertainment, instruction, advertis 
research— with illustrations from films 
originated by the leading film producing 
centers throughout the world. 
"A masterful job, intelligently and simply 
written . . . every stage of the animation 
process is explained in detail."— Busine 
Screen. "Indispensable."— U.S. Camera. 
352 pages, 5J" x 8^", over 250 illustratio 
$10.00 



Visual Communication Books 

Hastings House, Publishers 

151 East 50th Street, New York 22 









I